G20 is a strategic multilateral platform for international economic cooperation, connecting the world’s major developed and emerging economies. Representing more than 80 percent of world GDP, 75 percent of international trade and 60 percent of the world population, G20 countries are Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Türkiye, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the European Union. Each year, the Presidency invites guest countries, which take full part in the G20 exercise. Several international and regional organizations also participate, granting the forum an even broader representation.
Born out of the necessity to develop joint responses against challenges brought by economic crises of 1997 and 1998, G20 was formed in 1999 as a platform for finance ministers and central bank governors with the aim of discussing policies in order to achieve international financial stability. On the advice of the G7 Finance Ministers, the G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors began holding meetings to discuss the response to the global financial crisis that occurred. After that, the Minister of Finance level meeting is held regularly in the fall. Nine years later, on November 14-15 2008, the leaders of the G20 countries gathered for the first G20 Summit. On that occasion, the country’s leaders coordinated the global response to the impact of the financial crisis that occurred in the US at that time and agreed to hold a follow-up meeting, thus the forum evolved into a yearly summit involving Heads of State and Government. To prepare for the annual summit, the G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors, together with Sherpas (in charge of carrying out negotiations and building consensus among Leaders) meet several times a year.
G20 has no permanent secretariat. Agenda and the work coordination is completed by G20 leaders’ personal representatives, known as sherpas together with finance ministers and central bank governors. As for presidency, it rotates every year among its members, with the country that holds the presidency working together with its predecessor and successor, also known as Troika, to ensure the continuity of the agenda. Currently Italy, Indonesia, and India are the Troika countries, with Indonesia holding the presidency until 1 December 2022, which will be taken over by India until 30 November 2023.
G20 holds a premier role in securing future global economic growth along with prosperity and developing comprehensive responses to several challenges the world economy has faced. The forum’s core agenda is to achieve strong, sustainable and balanced global growth and to create quality jobs. To this end, G20 has taken up not only financial issues but also development, energy, employment, anticorruption and trade in order to assist reform of the global financial architecture and economic structure. The pinnacle of the G20 work is a communiqué expressing members’ commitments and vision for the future, drafted from the chosen recommendations and deliverables from ministerial meetings and other work streams.
Relations with G20
Türkiye places a premium on G20 platform bringing major developing and developed countries together, actively contributing to the activities of the platform.
Our country led the way for numerous innovations during the term presidency it assumed on 1 December 2014 and successfully completed its term presidency with G20 Leaders’ Summit held in Antalya on 15-16 November 2015. Within the scope of G20, Least Developed Countries (LDCs) remained at the forefront of Türkiye’s comprehensive G20 agenda for the first time. Türkiye incorporated Women 20 (W20) into G20’s 5 initiative groups as the 6th component, determining a numerical goal for employment of our youth running a high risk of exclusion from labour market. Furthermore, disparities in wages were brought to the agenda for the first time in employment working group and policy priorities likely to be pursued were set in order to respond to inequalities. As for “Implementation” which is one of the priorities of term presidency, Türkiye also attached importance to the implementation of commitments made and strategies adopted, pioneering the establishment of monitoring mechanisms in this regard. The informative note on G20 Antalya Summit outcomes could be accessed here.
Relations between the Ministry and G20
Resulting from the fact that impacts of the global financial crisis on employment became permanent and on account of positive contributions of employment to economy, regular convening of Ministers of Labour and presentation of their endeavours to Leaders were decided in Pittsburgh Leaders’ Summit held in the USA in 2009. Having convened for the first time in 2010, hosted by the USA, G20 Ministers of Labour convened afterwards in Paris in 2011, Guadalajara (Mexico) in 2012, Moscow (Russia) in 2013, Melbourne (Australia) in 2014, Ankara (Türkiye) in 2015, Beijing (China) in 2016 and Bad Neuenahr (Germany) in 2016.
Addressing and discussing issues to be dealt with during the meetings of Labour Ministers at technical level, a G20 Employment Task Force was set up as the outcome of the decision taken in Leaders’ Summit held in Cannes in 2011. This group was initially assigned with the task of conducting activities in the field of youth employment, subsequently, the task duration was extended every year and the group was assigned with technical works to be performed in various themes on working life and employment as well, with the support of international organizations.
The Employment Task Force attained a permanent structure by being transformed into Employment Working Group, following the decision taken in Brisbane Leaders’ Summit held in 2014. Procedures and principles concerning the activities of this group were set forth by the Ministry and the group commenced its activities for the first time during our country’s term presidency, subsequent to the adoption of members.
The activities of Employment Working Group formed within the structure of G20 are in the charge of the Ministry, which attends working group meetings and G20 meetings of Employment and Labour Ministers convening at the level of Ministers of Labour.